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Our Publications

Self‐Assembling Nanoclay Diffusion Gels for Bioactive Osteogenic Microenvironments

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Here, the potential to harness the gel-forming properties of Laponite to generate injectable bioactive microenvironments for osteogenesis is demonstrated. A diffusion/dialysis gelation method allows the rapid formation of stable transparent gels from injectable, thixotropic Laponite suspensions in physiological fluids. Further encapsulation of skeletal stem cell containing populations in the diffusion gels significantly enhances osteogenic protein expression compared with 3D pellet culture controls.


2020 - 2018

Mousa, M., Kelly, O., Doyle, J., Evans, N., Oreffo, R. & Dawson, J. (2021).  The role of lithium in the osteogenic bioactivity of clay nanoparticles. Biomaterials Science. DOI: 10.1039/D0BM01444C.


Kim, Y., Yang, X., Shi, L., Lanham, S., Hilborn, J., Oreffo, R., ... Dawson, J. (2020). Bisphosphonate nanoclay edge-site interactions facilitate hydrogel self-assembly and sustained growth factor localization. Nature Communications, 11, [1365]. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15152-9

Page, D. J., Clarkin, C. E., Mani, R., Khan, N. A., Dawson, J. I., & Evans, N. D. (2019). Injectable nanoclay gels for angiogenesis. Acta Biomaterialia. DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.09.023


Cidonio, G., Alcala Orozco, C. R., Lim, K., Glinka, M., Mutreja, I., Kim, Y., ... Oreffo, R. (2019). Osteogenic and angiogenic tissue formation in high fidelity nanocomposite Laponite-gelatin bioinks. Biofabrication, 11(3), [035027]. DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/ab19fd


Cidonio, G., Cooke, M., Glinka, M., Dawson, J., Grover, L., & Oreffo, R. (2019). Printing bone in a gel: using nanocomposite bioink to print functionalised bone scaffolds. Materials Today, 4, 1-12. [100028]. DOI: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2019.100028


Cidonio, G., Glinka, M., Dawson, J., & Oreffo, R. (2019). The cell in the ink: improving biofabrication by printing stem cells for skeletal regenerative medicine. Biomaterials, 209, 10-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.04.009

Shi, P., Kim, Y. H., Mousa, M., Sanchez, R. R., Oreffo, R. O. C., & Dawson, J. I. (2018). Self-assembling nanoclay diffusion gels for bioactive osteogenic microenvironments. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 7(15), [1800331]. DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201800331

Cidonio, G., Glinka, M., Kim, Y. H., Kanczler, J., Lanham, S., Ahlfeld, T., Lode, A., Dawson, J. I., Gelinsky, M. & Oreffo R. O. C. (2020). Nanoclay-based 3D printed scaffolds promote vascular ingrowth ex vivo and generate bone mineral tissue in vitro and in vivoBiofabrication, 12(3):035010. DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/ab8753.

Park, K., Dawson, J. I., Oreffo, R. O. C., Kim, Y. H & Hong, J. (2020). Nanoclay–Polyamine Composite Hydrogel for Topical Delivery of Nitric Oxide Gas via Innate Gelation Characteristics of Laponite. Biomacromolecules, 21(6), 2096–2103. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.0c00086

Choi, D., Heo, J., Milán, J., Oreffo, R. O. C, Dawson, J. I, Hong, J & Kim, Y. H. (2020. Structured nanofilms comprising Laponite® and bone extracellular matrix for osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells. Materials Science and Engineering C. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111440)

2017 - 2013

Ahlfeld, T., Cidonio, G., Kilian, D., Duin, S., Akkineni, A., Dawson, J., Yang, S., Lode, A., Oreffo, R. & Gelinsky, M.(2017). Development of a clay based bioink for 3D cell printing for skeletal application. Biofabrication, 1-24. DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/aa7e96

Hulsart-Billstrom, G., Dawson, J. I., Hofmann, S., Müller, R., Stoddart, M. J., Alini, M., ... Oreffo, R. O. C. (2016). A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo testing of biomaterials for bone regeneration: results of a multicentre analysis. European Cells & Materials, 31, 312-322. DOI: 10.22203/eCM.v031a20

Gibbs, D. M. R., Black, C. R. M., Hulsart-Billstrom, G., Shi, P., Scarpa, E., Oreffo, R. O. C., & Dawson, J. I. (2016). Bone induction at physiological doses of BMP through localization by clay nanoparticle gels. Biomaterials, 99, 16-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.05.010

Aarvold, A., Smith, J., Tayton, E. R., Jones, A. M. H., Dawson, J. I., Lanham, S. A., ... Oreffo, R. O. C. (2013). A tissue engineering strategy for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The Surgeon, 11(6), 319-325. DOI: 10.1016/j.surge.2013.02.008

Gothard, D., Dawson, J. I., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2013). Assessing the potential of colony morphology for dissecting the CFU-F population from human bone marrow stromal cells. Cell and Tissue Research. DOI: 10.1007/s00441-013-1564-3

Dawson, J. I., Smith, J. O., Aarvold, A., Ridgway, J. N., Curran, S. J., Dunlop, D. G., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2013). Enhancing the osteogenic efficacy of human bone marrow aspirate: concentrating osteoprogenitors using wave-assisted filtration. Cytotherapy, 15(2), 242-252. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2012.09.004

2012 - 2010

Dawson, J. I., Kingham, E., Evans, N. R., Tayton, E., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2012). Skeletal Regeneration: application of nanotopography and biomaterials for skeletal stem cell based bone repair. Inflammation and Regeneration, 32(3), 72-89. DOI: 10.2492/inflammregen.32.072

Dawson, J. I., Kanczler, J. M., Yang, X. B., Attard, G. S., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2011). Clay gels for the delivery of regenerative microenvironments. Advanced Materials, 23(29), 3304-3308. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100968


Gothard, D., Tare, R. S., Mitchell, P. D., Dawson, J. I., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2011). In search of the skeletal stem cell: isolation and separation strategies at the macro/micro scale for skeletal regeneration. Lab on a Chip, 11(7), 1206-1220. DOI: 10.1039/C0LC00575D

Aarvold, A., Smith, J. O., Tayton, E. R., Tilley, S., Dawson, J. I., Lanham, S. A., ... Oreffo, R. O. C. (2011). Taking tissue engineering principles into theatre: retrieval analysis from a clinically translated case. Regenerative Medicine, 6(4), 461-467. DOI: 10.2217/rme.11.33

Sengers, B. G., Dawson, J. I., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2010). Characterisation of human bone marrow stromal cell heterogeneity for skeletal regeneration strategies using a two-stage colony assay and computational modelling. Bone, 46(2), 496-503. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.10.002

2008 - 2007

Dawson, J. I., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2008). Bridging the regeneration gap: stem cells, biomaterials and clinical translation in bone tissue engineering. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 473(2), 124-31. DOI: 10.1016/

Dawson, J. I., Wahl, D. A., Lanham, S. A., Kanczler, J. M., Czernuszka, J. T., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2008). Development of specific collagen scaffolds to support the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Biomaterials, 29(21), 3105-3116. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.03.040

Dawson, J. I., Wahl, D. A., Caernuszka, J. T., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2007). Biomimetic collagen-Hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for osteo and chondrogenic conduction of STRO-1 immunoselected Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. Tissue Engineering, 13(7).



Pena Fernandez, M., Black, C., Dawson, J., Gibbs, D., Kanczler, J., Oreffo, R. O. C., & Tozzi, G. (2020). Exploratory full-field strain analysis of regenerated bone tissue from osteoinductive biomaterials. Materials, 13(1), [168]. DOI: 10.3390/ma13010168

Mousa, M., Evans, N. D., Oreffo, R. O. C., & Dawson, J. I. (2018). Clay nanoparticles for regenerative medicine and biomaterial design: a review of clay bioactivity. Biomaterials, 1-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.12.024

Oreffo, R., & Dawson, J. (2013). Clay: New opportunities for tissue regeneration and biomaterial design. Advanced Materials, 25(30), 4069-4086. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301034

Book Chapter

Lindahl, A., Brittberg, M., Gibbs, D., Dawson, J., Kanczler, J., Black, C., ... Oreffo, R. (2015). Cartilage and bone regeneration. In C. Van Blitterswijk, & J. De Boer (Eds.), Tissue Engineering. Second Edition (pp. 529-582). Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-420145-3.01001-4

Gibbs David, Dawson Jonathan I., Kanczler Janos and Oreffo Richard O.C, Skeletal Stem Cells-Phenotype and Function, 2020. In: Zaidi, M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Bone Biology, vol.[1], pp. 9-20. Oxford: Academic Press.

Cidonio G., Glinka M., Kim YH., Dawson J.I., Oreffo R.O.C. (2021) Nanocomposite Clay-Based Bioinks for Skeletal Tissue Engineering. In: Rainer A., Moroni L. (eds) Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 2147. Humana, New York, NY. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0611-7_6 


Dawson, J., Evans, N, Oreffo, R. & Ramnarine Sanchez R (2020). Structured gels. WO2020058724A1.

Oreffo, R., Dawson, J., Gibbs, D., Hilborn, J. & Ossipov, D (2019). Polymer-clay composite and organoclay. US2019247542A1.

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